Analiza Ministrstva za pravosodje: na podlagi neustreznih pravnih podlag uvedenih nekaj več kot 62.000 prekrškovnih postopkov

Vlada se je na 14. redni seji seznanila z Analizo pravnih podlag, ki so bile uporabljene v prekrškovnih postopkih proti posameznikom zaradi kršitev ukrepov zoper virusno bolezen COVID-19. V analiziranem obdobju je bilo uvedenih približno 62.000 prekrškovnih postopkov, skupen znesek glob za prekrške po Zakonu o nalezljivih boleznih in Zakonu o javnih zbiranjih za vse kategorije storilcev prekrškov pa znaša 5.754.540,63 evrov. 

V okviru priprave analize so se pregledale pravne podlage in odloki, na osnovi katerih so bili v času epidemije (od 12. marca 2020 do 30. maja 2022) proti posameznikom in pravnim osebam uvedeni različni prekrškovni postopki. 

Cilj analize je odprava tistih glob, ki so bile izvedene na podlagi neustavnih, nezakonitih oziroma nesorazmernih ukrepov. Postopki glede prekrškov, ki so bili uvedeni ustavno, zakonito, na podlagi ustreznih ukrepov, niso bili vključeni v analizo. Ustavno sodišče Republike Slovenije je v svojih odločbah ugotovilo, da so 2., 3. in 4. točka prvega odstavka 39. člena Zakona o nalezljivih boleznih v neskladju z Ustavo zaradi kršitve načela legalitete (120. člen Ustave). Na podlagi teh določb je Vlada RS sprejemala odloke, ki so  v primeru prekrška iz 14. točke prvega odstavka 57. člena ZNB, prekrška iz tretjega odstavka 57. člena ZNB in prekrška iz 10. točke prvega odstavka 54. člena ZNB »napolnili« vsebino (znake) navedenih prekrškov.

Strokovna analiza je zato omejena na ukrepe, ki jih je Vlada RS v navedenem obdobju sprejemala na podlagi 39. člena Zakona o nalezljivih boleznih (tako za fizične kot tudi pravne osebe), in delno na podlagi Zakona o javnih zbiranjih – prekrški organizatorjev javnih zbiranj.

Ključno merilo pri pripravi analize je bilo načelo ustavnosti, zakonitosti in sorazmernosti – saj so  izključno ta merila tista, na osnovi katerih je posamezni Vladi omogočeno, da omejuje človekove pravice.

Ugotovitve analize:

  • V času od 15. marca 2020 do 30. maja 2022 je bilo za obvladovanje nalezljive bolezni COVID-19 izdanih 533 odlokov.
  • V analiziranem obdobju je bilo na podlagi neustreznih pravnih podlag uvedenih nekaj več kot 62.000 prekrškovnih postopkov.
  • Podatki kažejo, da so bili v prekrškovnih postopkih pretežno obravnavani posamezniki – na posameznike se je nanašalo cca. 93% zadev, na pravne osebe pa cca. 7% zadev.
  • Skupen znesek glob za prekrške po ZNB in ZJZ za vse kategorije storilcev prekrškov znaša 5.754.540,63 evrov, od tega je bilo prostovoljno plačanih 1.765.592,58 evrov (cca. 30%), v prisilni izterjavi pa je 3.988.948,05 evrov (cca. 70%).

Vlada je Ministrstvu za pravosodje naložila, da na podlagi Analize, v sodelovanju z Ministrstvom za notranje zadeve in Službo Vlade Republike Slovenije za zakonodajo, do 31. januarja 2023 pripravi normativne rešitve v zvezi s prekrškovnimi postopki, ki so se vodili v času obvladovanja nalezljive bolezni COVID-19 na podlagi neustreznih pravnih podlag.

Vir: Ministrstvo za pravosodje.

Free Opinions on The Pay of Young Roscius

Upravno sodišče pritrdilo informacijskemu pooblaščencu, da je generalni sekretariat vlade neutemeljeno zavračal prost dostop do pravnih mnenj vladne službe za zakonodajo 

Upravno sodišče RS je s sodbo št. IU 1506/2021-12 z dne 24. avgusta 2022 pritrdilo Informacijskemu pooblaščencu (IP), da bi moral tedanji Generalni sekretariat Vlade Republike Slovenije prosilcu kot informacijo javnega značaja posredovati dve mnenji Službe Vlade RS za zakonodajo, in sicer o predlogu Zakona o spremembah in dopolnitvah Zakona o izvrševanju proračunov Republike Slovenije za leto 2021 in 2022 in predlogu Zakona o debirokratizaciji.

Generalni sekretariat Vlade RS sploh ni utemeljil, kakšna škoda oziroma motnje bi lahko nastale z razkritjem teh mnenj. Sodišče je sledilo IP, da prost dostop do  mnenj ne bi v ničemer posegel v možnost kritičnega in inovativnega razmišljanja vlade, saj gre za strokovna stališča. Oba dokumenta je namreč pripravila vladna služba, katere osnovna skrb in odgovornost je, da so predpisi ustavni in zakoniti, notranje skladni, ljudem razumljivi in učinkoviti. Gre torej za strokovni pravni mnenji in ne za interno, politično komunikacijo. Mnenji  predstavljata uradno strokovno stališče te službe in ne stališča ali političnega razmišljanja vlade.

Seznanjenje javnosti z informacijami v vseh fazah sprejemanja predpisov krepi zaupanje državljanov v državne institucije in predpise. Nasprotno pa lahko »skrivanje« informacij vzbuja dvom o zakonitosti predpisa in v legitimnost celotnega postopka odločanja.

IP pozdravlja odločitev sodišča, saj je v demokratični družbi nujno in legitimno, da ima javnost vedno zagotovljen podroben vpogled v pripravo zakonskih rešitev.

Vir: IP.

Rule of Law Report 2021: Slovenia

I.

The level of perceived judicial independence has been continuously improving.

Appointments of state prosecutors are unjustifiably delayed and failure to timely nominate European Delegated Prosecutors raises concerns.

The Constitutional Court declared the rules governing parliamentary inquiries unconstitutional for lack of safeguards on judicial independence.

The judiciary initiated a discussion on improving the framework for disciplinary proceedings regarding judges.

The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the need to accelerate the necessary improvements to electronic communication tools in the justice system.

Access to court and prosecution documents was the subject of a Supreme Court judgment and a legislative amendment.

The Judicial Council and State Prosecutorial Council are benefitting from a slight increase in resources, but shortages remain.

The efficiency of the court system slightly decreased, and challenges in economic and financial crime court cases, identified in the 2020 Rule of law Report, remain.

II.

The perception among experts and business executives is that the level of corruption in the public sector remains relatively low.

The Integrity and Prevention of Corruption Act was recently strengthened.

By its time of expiration, the national anti-corruption strategy has largely been implemented, but some actions remain pending and no new plan has been adopted so far.

The Commission for the Prevention of Corruption was strengthened, including its independence, although fully-fledged effectiveness remains to be reached.

Challenges remain with regard to the investigation of economic and financial crime and the leadership of the National Bureau of Investigation.

While the number of prosecutions has increased, the adjudication of cases before courts remains low, especially regarding high-level corruption.

In addition to lacking expertise and resources, challenges in the prosecution of corruption arise due to the statute of limitation.

Declaration of assets was extended to additional categories of officials, but their publication remains a challenge.

Provisions on lobbying for public officers and elected persons continue to improve.

Transparency of public data, especially related to public expenditures, remains in place.

In 2020, ethics rules for members of the Parliament were adopted.

Despite the existing legal provisions for the protection of whistleblowers, the effective enforcement remains overdue.

Several actions have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic aimed to assess, prevent and deter the risk of corruption, especially in public procurement.

III.

The independence of the Agency for Communication Networks and Services is provided by law, but challenges remain regarding its resources and commitment to strengthen its independence.

Slovenia has specific provisions on transparency of media ownership, but concerns remain regarding the effective identification of the ownership structures.

Instances of political interference in media have been reported.

No progress has been noted regarding the governance over state advertising.

The economic conditions of media have worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journalists continue to face obstacles to access public information and documents, especially due to lengthy procedures.

Online harassment and lawsuits targeting journalists continue to increase, while physical attacks are rare.

IV.

The Parliament continued functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Communicable Diseases Act, amended four times since the COVID-19 pandemic started, has been the basis for restrictive measures, as no state of emergency has been declared.

Financial independence of certain independent bodies has been ensured by a Constitutional Court judgment.

The Constitutional Court improved its efficiency and played an active role in reviewing COVID-19 pandemic measures.

Human Rights Ombudsperson gained A-status accreditation and has been active in monitoring restrictive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

To discuss the rule of law, the President of the Republic convened a first-ever meeting of the legislative, executive and judicial powers.

The civil society space has been challenged.

Vir: 2021 Rule of Law Report: Country Chapter on the rule of law situation in Slovenia, SWD(2021) 726 final, Bruselj, 20. 7. 2021.